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In the conclusion you can summarise what your essay has argued, and what the evidence you introduced has indicated.

In the conclusion you can add a few sentences that show how your essay could be developed and taken further. Here you can assert why the question is important and make some tentative suggestions for further analysis. Check for divergences away from the question. Re-reading and revising your essay is an important part of the process, and can make a big difference to the grade you achieve. Going back through your essay will also help you see common mistakes or recurring problems in your writing.

This will help you become more attuned to them, and avoid repeating them in future essays. As you read through it, think about how closely you stick to main overarching question. If you notice paragraphs that drift off into other areas, you need to be tough and cut them out. Assess the quality and depth of your argument. Think about the quality and consistency of argument when you read back through your essay. Your argument should be clear and obvious to the reader, with evidence introduced to support it, and counter-arguments discussed.

Read it through carefully, and try to identify any points at which the argument is getting lost. Think about how you use the evidence too. Do you critically engage with it, or do you merely quote it to support your point? A good analytical essay such discuss evidence critically at all times. Even if the evidence supports your argument, you need to show that you have thought about the value of this particular piece of data.

Try to avoid making any assumptions, or writing as if something were beyond dispute. Check spelling, grammar and style. Make sure all your paragraphs are well-ordered, and well-structured.

Avoid long and complicated sentences with many clauses. Try to read it out loud to see if the sentences are too long. Try to write in a clear and concise style that reads easily. Avoid unnecessarily ornate language or phrasing, and focus on making your argument comprehensible. Try to avoid paragraphs that are more than ten or fifteen lines long.

Think about how it looks on the page. Check your referencing and bibliography. In an academic essay, proper referencing is very important.

If you miss a reference, or incorrectly reference something, you may be accidentally guilty of plagiarism. When it comes to referencing, ensure you follow the style set out for you in your department or class. Always follow the bibliography format used by your department or class. If I do not know what economics is, how can I write a good essay on it? You could do research, either from your in-class work, or independently, at a library or on the internet.

You should also ask your teacher to go over with you what exactly they want in your essay. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 0. I am a grade 12 learner and am struggling to understand an essay. Where can I get help? Ask your teacher for help, or if they can recommend a tutor to help you with this project. In Asia, capital, agriculture, and education expenditure promotes economic growth.

In Latin America, none of the government spending items has any significant impact on economic growth. The main question that will be answered: This will be achieved by answering the following sub-questions:. The main objective of the study will be to analyze the impact of government expenditures as a total and its components on the Palestinian economic growth.

Moreover, the specific goals to be achieved are:. The Importance of the Study:. However, government expenditures and taxes are two tools of fiscal policies that can be used to achieve the desired economic growth in Palestine.

Government expenditures are more controlled by the Palestinian authorities, which give them the preference over the other instruments of fiscal policy in this study. Since part of the taxes are under the control of the Israeli authorities in certain circumstances and up to certain levels, the recommendations that will come out of this study will be more effective in the case of government expenditures rather than taxes.

This study will be directly addressed to the Palestinian policy makers, mainly the Ministry of Finance. This study will help the policy makers in the Ministry of Finance to take into their consideration the effect of the government expenditures on the economic growth when they formulate and create the Palestinian Authority budget.

This will make the budget more effective and the Palestinian resources will be allocated in a more efficient and productive way. This study will also be very helpful to the Ministry of Planning in setting up the social, economical, financial and political plans that would enhance the overall performance of the country in the previously mentioned fields.

Since there is a direct relationship between GDP and unemployment rate, this fiscal policy instrument will be very helpful for Ministry of Labor in preparing its annual strategies in decreasing the unemployment rates. In addition, this study will benefit the Ministry of National Economy in choosing the projects that should be given licenses, in particular, the ones that enhance the economy growth the most. In addition, this will help the individuals as being part of the labor force to determine how and where to invest their money so as to help in achieving better GDP growth.

This study will be analyzing the impact of government expenditures as a total and its components on the economic growth in Palestine It will have an important limitation, which will be the shortness of the time series that will be taken in analyzing the impact of the government expenditures on the GDP.

The time series coverage will be since the Palestinian Authority was established in as a result of the Oslo Accords between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel. The study will be based on secondary annual data of total government expenditures and its components from the Ministry of Finance whereas the GDP, capital estimated using the ICOR approach and employment to be taken from the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics.

This study will be consisting of two models. The dependent variable of the first model will be the GDP whereas the independent variables will be capital, labor force, technology and total government expenditures Mohammadi, Maleki and Gashti As for the second model GDP will be the dependent variable while labor, capital, technology and the components of government expenditures will be the independent variables Bader, According to the Ministry of Finance government expenditures in Palestine are divided into four types; expenditures on wages and salaries, non- wage expenditures, net lending and development expenditures.

These four types will form the independent variables of the second model. The stationarity of the two models will be first tested using Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-Perron unit root test for stationarity. Then the impact of government expenditures as a total and its components on the GDP will be examined using multiple regression analysis where the R2, F-test and t- test will be calculated.

Wages and salaries expenditures. This study will consist of five chapters. Chapter one will contain seven sections: Chapter two will outline the theoretical background and a literature review of previous studies that have the same problem of this study. Chapter three will be a detailed descriptive analysis of the data on the variables of interest focusing on the allocation of the government expenditures.

Chapter four will be analyzing the data statistically. It will contain detailed description of the methodology of the study with the models to be estimated addressed in functional forms using symbols representing the dependent variable along with the independent variables. Finally, the estimated models will be discussed and tested economically and statistically in order to highlight the impact of government expenditures along with its components on economic growth.

Chapter five will give the final conclusions of the study and the recommendations that will be addressed to the competent authorities. Administrative Sciences, Volume 39, No. On the other hand, first-price sealed-bid auctions act in the opposite direction from ascending auctions.

It does not give bidders a chance to collude and encourages weaker bidders to participate. However, the disadvantage of using a sealed-bid auction is that it is more likely to lead to inefficient results than an ascending auction.

The reason for this is that sometimes bidders with a lower value may beat opponents with a higher value. Hence, there is no perfect auction design and they must be customized to suit different environments and targets. United Kingdom was the first to hold the auctions and they are a good example of how a well-planned auction design and good marketing strategies can lead to a favourable outcome. As there were five licenses and 4 incumbents, they had an ascending auction.

To prevent collusion, each license could not be shared and each bidder was allowed no more than one license. Also, the fact that at least one license was available to new entrants lead to fierce competition from nine new entrants.

To top it all off, UK had a solid marketing strategy which was planned over three years - All this helped contribute to UK raising 39 billion euros and being the most successful out of all the countries that took part in the 3G auctions. Netherlands, Italy and Switzerland made the mistake of following UK and carrying out an ascending auction when a sealed-bid auction would have served them better.

This resulted in revenues less than that achieved by UK. In the case of Netherlands, they had five licenses and five incumbents. This deterred new entrants as well as facilitated collusion. For example, Deutsche Telekom colluded with local incumbents to bid for a 3G license. A sealed-bid would have worked better as this would have discouraged joint bidding, raise higher revenues as well as give new entrants a glimmer of hope.

Italy had their auction next but failed to learn from Netherlands and UK. Their auction design was not robust and failed to adapt to the environment in Italy. They adopted the UK design but had the additional rule that if bidders did not exceed licenses, the number of licenses would be reduced. They did not realize that having one more bidder than license does not assure that the outcome will be competitive. Also, Italy had failed to anticipate that firms would react differently to those in Netherlands and UK as they now had more information.

Hence, weaker bidders were discouraged by previous auctions and did not bother to participate and since the participation rate was low, it made it easier for the strong bidders to collude. A bad auction design that was not tailored to the Italian environment and a low reserve price resulted in Italy only earning less than 25 billion euros.

Switzerland was the most unsuccessful amongst all the countries that held the auctions. It raised only 20 euros per capita in its ascending auction and this can be attributed to an unfeasible auction design, badly formulated rules and an absurdly low reserve price. Since the beginning, weaker bidders were deterred by the auction form.

They felt that they did not stand a chance against the strong bidders and hence did not bother participating. This resulted in little competition. Furthermore, The Swiss government committed auction suicide when they permitted last-minute joint-bidding! This resulted in nine bidders colluding to become just four.

The last mistake that the Swiss government made was to set a reserve price that was way too low. Since there were four licenses and four bidders, bidders ended up paying only the reserve price. Germany's auction design was an ascending auction of twelve blocks of spectrum from which bidders could create four three-block licenses or six two-block licenses.

Germany's auction design was very susceptible to collusion and deterring new entrants but they were lucky and managed to earn high revenues. Austria, on the other hand, adopted Germany's auction design but was not so lucky and only earned euros per capita. The reason for this was that there were 6 bidders competing for 12 blocks of spectrum and a very low reserve price one-eight of the reserve price in Germany. So instead of trying to get three blocks of spectrum, the bidders divided the 12 blocks of spectrum equally and paid the reserve price.

This reason lead to Austria earning less per capita revenue than UK and Germany. The other factor that affected the amount of revenue earned by each country was the sequence in which the auctions took place. Looking at the results of the 3G auctions held in , it can be seen that the most successful auctions were the first of their type United Kingdom and Germany.

The reason for this is that between auctions, bidders learnt from previous auctions, came up with new strategies and learnt more about their rivals. However, the auction designs remained almost the same and were unable to keep up with the new ideas the bidders had come up with. This resulted in the later auctions not being as successful as the first. In conclusion, the reason for the different revenues earned amongst the countries that took part in the 3G auctions is due to the auction designs and the sequence in which they took place.

Revenues depend on how well the auction design is able to attract entry and prevent collusion. Also, it has to be able to adapt to new environments.


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