The entire paper should be organized around the data you will present. You also may be able to determine if you have all the data you need. An outline details how you will get from here to there, and helps ensure that you take the most direct and logical route. Do not start writing without it!
If you have coauthors, you may wish to get feedback from them before you proceed to the actual writing phase. Write the first draft. Write the first draft of the entire manuscript. If you are writing with coauthors, you may wish to assign different aspects of the manuscript to different authors.
This can save time, allow more individuals to feel that are making substantive contributions to the writing process, and ensure the best use of expertise. However, it also can lead to a mixture of styles. Thus, if you take this approach, be certain that the final product is carefully edited to provide a single voice. For a more extensive presentation of this and many other aspects of preparing a paper, see Day At this point, do not worry about it being intelligible.
This can help ensure flow. However, others suggest that you start wherever you wish — anything to get rid of that blank screen or piece of paper. Whatever your approach, heed the advice of Charles Sides If you are taking much more than two full days, you have probably paused to edit! This step involves three major tasks, each to be carried out in the order given:.
Fill in gaps, correct flaws in logic, restructure the document to present the material in the most logical order. Refine the text, then correct grammar and spelling.
It is important to do the tasks in the stated order. Otherwise, you may find yourself spending a lot of time revising material that you later delete. Do one last literature search to make certain that you are up to date.
Write the final title and abstract. Make certain that your title and abstract match the final version of your article. Reread the journal's Instructions to Authors. Review the details of how the manuscript is to be formatted and submitted.
Prepare the final illustrations. Do not allow any chance for misunderstanding. Getting feedback is one of the most important things that you can do to improve your article. Then, when it is ready, give the manuscript to some colleagues. Indicate when you would like to receive their comments, and what levels of information you would like e. After you get their comments, revise your manuscript to address their concerns. Once it is accepted, further changes in your manuscript will be difficult and may also be costly.
Submit the manuscript to the editor. Follow the Instructions to Authors to determine what items you need to submit, how to submit them, and to whom you should send them.
At this point you may wish to list possible reviewers or individuals to be avoided. If necessary, contact the editor to be sure that the manuscript was received. And if after a month you have not received a response concerning the acceptability of your manuscript for publication you may wish to contact the editor about this, too.
Deal with reviewers' comments. However, you may well be invited to resubmit a revised manuscript. If you choose to do so, you will need to respond to the reviewer comments. Do this with tact. Answer every concern of the reviewers, and indicate where the corresponding changes were made in the manuscript if they were, indeed, made. You do not need to make all of the changes that the reviewer recommended, but you do need to provide a convincing rationale for any changes that you did not make.
When you resubmit the manuscript, indicate in your cover letter that this is a revised version. An alternative is to submit the manuscript to another journal.
However, if you do so, it may still be best to take the reviewer comments into consideration. Even if you feel that the reviewers have misunderstood something in your paper, others might do the same.
Of course, if you submit to another journal you probably will need to modify the format. You may not submit your manuscript to more than one journal at a time! Once the manuscript is accepted and prepared for print, the publisher will send the corresponding author page proofs of the article. This may be accompanied by a list of queries, such as missing information regarding a reference. The proofs may be sent via e-mail or as hard copy. If there is a chance that you will be away when the proofs arrive, have a plan for making certain that they are received and you are notified.
You may only have 24—48 hr to return the proofs. Carefully correct any typos and factual errors. And read the manuscript for clarity — this is your last chance! However, try to limit changes to editorial queries plus minor modifications. Why is it interesting?
The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked. One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment.
How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section. If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used. Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on.
Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate. If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain?
This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text.
Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion. You don't necessarily have to include all the data you've gotten during the semester. This isn't a diary. Use appropriate methods of showing data.
Don't try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did. If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table "Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results".
For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes. Don't use a table or graph just to be "fancy". If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary. Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question?
Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results?
How do y our results fit into the big picture? End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant. This section is optional. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza.
There are several possible ways to organize this section. Here is one commonly used way: In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places: Scarlet thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus Indigo and Mauve, and wombat Magenta, et al. In the References section list citations in alphabetical order.
Queer place for qwerty: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q. Isolation of qwerty gene from S. Journal of Unusual Results 36, Unfortunately, they're all the same page.
Write accurately Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate.
A student who tried not to repeat the word "hamster" produced this confusing sentence: The rats were injected with the drug. I injected the drug into the rat.
The typical research paper is a highly codified rhetorical form [1,2]. Knowledge of the rules—some explicit, others implied—goes a long way toward writing a paper that will get accepted in a peer-reviewed journal. Primacy of the research question. A good research paper addresses a specific research question.
Writing a research manuscript is an intimidating process for many novice writers in the sciences. One of the stumbling blocks is the beginning of the process and creating the first draft. This paper presents guidelines on how to initiate the writing process and draft each section of a research manuscript.
2 Compared with writing, research on the teaching of reading, the focus of many of the chapters in this volume, has a much longer and richer history. Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research. A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner. This doesn't necessarily reflect the order in.
Learn how to write a perfect summary for research paper in 5 steps! Read the blog on Essays DeLuxe and improve your writing skills! 5 easy steps to summarize a research article. Writing Good Article Summary. You must learn how to summarize a research article in APA format if this is the requirement. The reason is that research articles must follow as a format to present information about an experiment clearly.5/5.