The following diagram provides an example of a more detailed description of the steps in a phenomenology study. Data analysis will be the focus of the next module in this series. Phenomenological Research Methods — Contains a detailed descriptive of different types of phenomenological research methods. This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. List and describe the steps involved in a phenomenology study.
Describe the basic principles applied to phenomenological methodology and data collection. Discuss ways in which phenomenological data can be collected. Summarize tips for conducting an effective interview. Following is a list of principles and qualities applied to phenomenological methodology and data collection: Phenomenology searches for the meaning or essence of an experience rather than measurements or explanations. Researcher should begin with the practice of Epoche. He or she will describe their own experiences or ideas related to phenomenon to increase their own awareness of their underlying feelings.
Phenomenology is different in that the researcher is often participatory and the other participants are co-researchers in many cases. This type of research focuses on the wholeness of the experience, rather than its individual parts. However, this type of data collection method can be expensive to set up and requires that interviewers have computer and typing skills.
Paper-pencil-questionnaires can be sent to a large number of people and saves the researcher time and money. People are more truthful while responding to the questionnaires regarding controversial issues in particular due to the fact that their responses are anonymous. But they also have drawbacks. Majority of the people who receive questionnaires don't return them and those who do might not be representative of the originally selected sample. A new and inevitably growing methodology is the use of Internet based research.
This would mean receiving an e-mail on which you would click on an address that would take you to a secure web-site to fill in a questionnaire. This type of research is often quicker and less detailed. Some disadvantages of this method include the exclusion of people who do not have a computer or are unable to access a computer. Also the validity of such surveys are in question as people might be in a hurry to complete it and so might not give accurate responses. Questionnaires often make use of Checklist and rating scales.
These devices help simplify and quantify people's behaviors and attitudes. A checklist is a list of behaviors,characteristics,or other entities that te researcher is looking for. Either the researcher or survey participant simply checks whether each item on the list is observed, present or true or vice versa. A rating scale is more useful when a behavior needs to be evaluated on a continuum. They are also known as Likert scales.
Furthermore qualitative methods can beused to improve the quality of survey-based quantitative evaluations by helping generate evaluation hypothesis; strengthening the design of survey questionnaires and expanding or clarifying quantitative evaluation findings. These methods are characterized by the following attributes:. There are a number of pauses in the narrative that might suggest the participant is finding it difficult to recall that experience.
At the end of this excerpt, the participant just trails off, recalling that no-one showed any interest, which makes for very moving reading. There are no statistical tests that can be used to check reliability and validity as there are in quantitative research. This simple act can result in revisions to the codes and can help to clarify and confirm the research findings. Theming refers to the drawing together of codes from one or more transcripts to present the findings of qualitative research in a coherent and meaningful way.
Thus, when the findings are organized for presentation, each theme can become the heading of a section in the report or presentation. Implications for real life e. This synthesis is the aim of the final stage of qualitative research. There are a number of ways in which researchers can synthesize and present their findings, but any conclusions drawn by the researchers must be supported by direct quotations from the participants.
The work of Latif and others 12 gives an example of how qualitative research findings might be presented. As has been suggested above, if researchers code and theme their material appropriately, they will naturally find the headings for sections of their report.
The final presentation of the research will usually be in the form of a report or a paper and so should follow accepted academic guidelines.
In particular, the article should begin with an introduction, including a literature review and rationale for the research. There should be a section on the chosen methodology and a brief discussion about why qualitative methodology was most appropriate for the study question and why one particular methodology e.
The method itself should then be described, including ethics approval, choice of participants, mode of recruitment, and method of data collection e. The findings should be written as if a story is being told; as such, it is not necessary to have a lengthy discussion section at the end. As stated earlier, it is not the intention of qualitative research to allow the findings to be generalized, and therefore this is not, in itself, a limitation.
Planning out the way that findings are to be presented is helpful. It is useful to insert the headings of the sections the themes and then make a note of the codes that exemplify the thoughts and feelings of your participants. It is generally advisable to put in the quotations that you want to use for each theme, using each quotation only once.
After all this is done, the telling of the story can begin as you give your voice to the experiences of the participants, writing around their quotations. Finally, as appropriate, it is possible to include examples from literature or policy documents that add support for your findings. It can be used in pharmacy practice research to explore how patients feel about their health and their treatment. An understanding of these issues can help pharmacists and other health care professionals to tailor health care to match the individual needs of patients and to develop a concordant relationship.
Doing qualitative research is not easy and may require a complete rethink of how research is conducted, particularly for researchers who are more familiar with quantitative approaches. There are many ways of conducting qualitative research, and this paper has covered some of the practical issues regarding data collection, analysis, and management. The participant age late 50s had suffered from a chronic mental health illness for 30 years. As the participant talked about past experiences, the researcher asked:.
The planned 2-year series is intended to appeal to relatively inexperienced researchers, with the goal of building research capacity among practising pharmacists. The articles, presenting simple but rigorous guidance to encourage and support novice researchers, are being solicited from authors with appropriate expertise.
Can J Hosp Pharm. Ethical issues in pharmacy practice research: Designing pharmacy practice research trials. An introduction to developing surveys for pharmacy practice research. An introduction to the fundamentals of cohort and case—control studies. Austin Z, Sutton J. C an J Hosp Pharm. An introduction to the fundamentals of randomized controlled trials in pharmacy research.
What do you need to know to get started? National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Copyright Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists. In submitting their manuscripts, the authors transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership to CSHP.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Interpretation of Data Interpretation of the data will depend on the theoretical standpoint taken by researchers. Transcribing and Checking For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that interviews or focus groups have been audio-recorded. Coding Once all of the research interviews have been transcribed and checked, it is time to begin coding.
Theming Theming refers to the drawing together of codes from one or more transcripts to present the findings of qualitative research in a coherent and meaningful way. Planning and Writing the Report As has been suggested above, if researchers code and theme their material appropriately, they will naturally find the headings for sections of their report. Excerpt from a sample transcript The participant age late 50s had suffered from a chronic mental health illness for 30 years.
As the participant talked about past experiences, the researcher asked: What was treatment like 30 years ago?
Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes. Data collection methods can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of data.
DATA COLLECTION Research methodology A brief and succinct account on what the techniques for collecting data are, how to apply them, where to Magister “Civilisation: find data of any type, and the way to keep records for language and Cultural an optimal management of cost, time and effort.
The purpose of this page is to describe important data collection methods used in Research.. Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results. An overview of the research study with a detailed account of the research design explaining the data sources, methods used, research instrument of data collection, variables included, sample population and sample size is presented in this chapter.
Phenomenology Methods & Data Collection The methodology used in phenomenology differs than most other research methodology because the goal is to describe a lived experience, rather than to explain or quantify it in any way. Phenomenology is solely concerned with the study of the experience from the perspective of the participants. In more details, in this part the author outlines the research strategy, the research method, the research approach, the methods of data collection, the selection of the sample, the research.